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# Hazard ratio vs relative risk

### How to explain the difference between hazard ratio and

In survival analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) is the ratio of the hazard rates corresponding to the conditions described by two levels of an explanatory variable. For example, in a drug study, the treated population may die at twice the rate per uni.. It should be clear that the hazard ratio is a relative measure of effect and tells us nothing about absolute risk.  [ page needed ] While hazard ratios allow for hypothesis testing , they should be considered alongside other measures for interpretation of the treatment effect, e.g. the ratio of median times (median ratio) at which treatment and control group participants are at some endpoint

### Hazard ratio - Wikipedi

• d HR is not RR
• The risk of ASCV mortality increased in a linear manner with higher free thyroxine levels (hazard ratio, 2.41; confidence interval, 1.68-3.47 per 1 ng/dL) and lower thyroid-stimulating hormone.
• Both are used to compare the chance of an event happening in two (or more) groups. So if the relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) is 1.0, the two groups have the same chance of having whatever the study is measuring, be it an heart attack or stroke or death or whatever

### Tutorial about Hazard Ratios - Students 4 Best Evidenc

som med termen risk kan man naturligtvis beräkna derivera-de data: absolut och relativ incidensdifferens samt incidens-kvot. Hazard inte synonymt med risk I allmänspråket kan »hazard« översättas med »risk«, men i statistiken är begreppen inte synonyma. Som statistisk term 752 Läkartidningen Nr 8 2002 Volym 99 Klinik och vetenska Tom Brody Ph.D., in Clinical Trials (Second Edition), 2016. d Hazard Ratio. The hazard ratio is the ratio of (chance of an event occurring in the treatment arm)/(chance of an event occurring in the control arm) (20).The HR has also been defined as, the ratio of (risk of outcome in one group)/(risk of outcome in another group), occurring at a given interval of time (21) Relative Risk/Risk Ratio. Suppose you have a school that wants to test out a new tutoring program. At the start of the school year they impose the new tutoring program (treatment) for a group of students randomly selected from those who are failing at least 1 subject at the end of the 1st quarter

Tänk på skillnaderna mellan absolut risk och relativ risk. Om risken att du ska åka ut för något är 0,005 procent så spelar det inte särskilt stor roll om risken dubblas till 0,01 procent. Den är fortfarande väldigt låg och det finns troligen mycket annat som du bör fokusera på att förändra i din vardag om du vill minimera risker Hazard Ratios Assumption: Proportional hazards The risk does not depend on time. That is, risk is constant over time But that is still vague.. Example: Assume hazard ratio is 0.7. Patients in temsirolimus group are at 0.7 times the risk of death as those in the interferon-alpha arm, at any given point in time

Hazard ratio vs. Risk Ratio (Relative Risk) Despite often being mistaken for being the same thing, relative risk and hazard ratios are nothing alike [3,4] . To give an extreme example, the relative risk at time t end when all patients in a cancer trial have died through one cause or another will be 1, while the hazard ratio may be any number from 0 to plus infinity, depending on the actual. The size of your absolute risk reduction depends on what your risk is to begin with. Hazard Ratios. Doctors sometimes use the term hazard ratio to talk about risk. A hazard ratio considers your absolute risk to be 1. If something you do or take doesn't change your risk, then the hazard ratio is 1. If something you do or take lowers your risk. A risk ratio (RR), also called relative risk, compares the risk of a health event (disease, injury, risk factor, or death) among one group with the risk among another group. It does so by dividing the risk (incidence proportion, attack rate) in group 1 by the risk (incidence proportion, attack rate) in group 2

Odds ratios (OR) are commonly reported in the medical literature as the measure of association between exposure and outcome. However, it is relative risk that people more intuitively understand as a measure of association. Relative risk can be directly determined in a cohort study by calculating a risk ratio (RR) Hazard ratio. Hazard ratio is a measure of relative risk over time in circumstances where we are interested not only in the total number of events, but in their timing as well. The event of interest may be death or it may be a non-fatal event such as readmission or symptom change Risk ratios, odds ratios, and hazard ratios are three common, but often misused, statistical measures in clinical research. In this paper, the authors dissect what each of these terms define, and provide examples from the medical literature to illustrate each of these statistical measures. Finally, the correct and incorrect methods to use these measures are summarized The relative risk (RR) or risk ratio is the ratio of the probability of an outcome in an exposed group to the probability of an outcome in an unexposed group. It is computed as /, where is the incidence in the exposed group, and is the incidence in the unexposed group. Together with risk difference and odds ratio, relative risk measures the association between the exposure and the outcome

### (PDF) Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk

• relative risks, odds ratios and hazard ratios? The method of presenting the results of clinical studies can affect their interpretation by clinicians2 and nonclinicians alike.3,4 Therefore, it is important to under- 9.3 vs 11.4 per cent, relative risk 0.80 (95 per cent CI 0.72-0.90). A
• These are all part of Survival Analysis a statistical method used in clinical trials. Hazard ratio deals with a two part ( level ) explanatory variable and is an instantaneous risk over the course of the study . In a study on men given a new stati..
• Relative risk (RR) is the risk of an event (or of developing a disease) relative to exposure. Relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the exposed group versus a non.
• -globulin ratio as a biochemical parameter and embolus-to-blood ratio for Doppler are examples. Epidemiologists use sex ratio and dependency ratio. In all ratios, the two items under comparison are different entities, and none is part of the other. RISK AND HAZARD

Relative risk should not be confused with absolute risk, which in this case is 25/100 or 25%, or 1 in 4. Relative risk vs Odds Ratio vs Hazard Ratio. Relative risk and risk ratios (probabilitiy ratios) are different from odds ratios, although they might be close in certain cases How to Interpret Risk Ratios: Since the relative risk is a simple ratio, errors tend to occur when the terms more or less are used. Because it is a ratio and expresses how many times more probable the outcome is in the exposed group, the simplest solution is to incorporate the words times the risk or times as high as in your interpretation Except for this difference the hazard ratio is expressed much in the same way as the relative risk. A hazard ratio of 1 would indicate that there was no difference between treatments, whereas a hazard ratio of 2 would signify that the treatment group had twice the rate of an event, and a hazard ratio of 0.5 would signify that the treatment.

### What is the difference between hazard ratio and relative

The Relative Risk Ratio and Odds Ratio are both used to measure the medical effect of a treatment or variable to which people are exposed. The effect could be beneficial (from a therapy) or harmful (from a hazard) The relative risk ratio tells you that the risk of death is three times higher with drug A than with drug B over the entire period of the study (i.e. it's cumulative).; The hazard ratio tells you that the risk of death is three times higher with drug A than with drug B at any particular point in time.; When evaluating hazard ratios, it's recommended that you also use another measure such. Relative Risk Reduction at time x 5 S EðxÞ2S CðxÞ 12S CðxÞ: (Eq. 1) It can be shown that this risk reduction is less than 1 2rat all post-baseline observation points and for any hazard ratio r < 1 (see Appendix). In other words, the relative reduction in risk of death is always less than the hazard ratio implies. It i In other words, the relative reduction in risk of death is always less than the hazard ratio implies. It is also a decreasing function of the time point at which it is assessed. For instance, in the example in Figure 1 , a 40% hazard reduction implies risk reductions of 25% and only 14% in the 1‐year and 2‐year mortality rates, respectively

In a more general sense, risk ratios (like the HR) can have magnitudes vastly different from risk differences (like RD) for the same outcome. Say you have an outcome with an incidence of 0.99 in group A and 0.98 in group B. The risk difference of A relative to B is 0.01, the risk ratio is 1.01 Or one could view the risk ratio and the odds ratio as approximations to the hazard ratio or rate ratio. Rates and hazards can exceed 1, unlike risks, so there's no constraint on the hazard ratio, unlike the risk ratio. Hazard ratios / rate ratios can therefore be constant over the entire range of baseline hazard / background rate. Roger Key Difference - Hazard vs Risk . It is a common experience that some words are considered as synonyms of each other as described in the dictionary whereas in real life there is a difference between the two in the context of usage This study addresses whether hazard ratio, i.e., relative risk (RR), estimates using the Cox model are biased when these assumptions are violated. We investigated also the dependence of RR estimates on temporal exposure characteristics, and how inadequate control for a strong, time‐dependent confounder affects RRs for a modest, correlated risk factor

### Hazard Ratio - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

• If the RR (the relative risk) or the OR (the odds ratio) = 1, or the CI (the confidence interval) = 1, then there is no significant difference between treatment and control groups. If the RR >1, and the CI does not include 1, events are significantly more likely in the treatment than the control group
• g of the event but only about the occurrence of the event by the end of the study (i.e. whether.
• Das relative Risiko (RR), Risk Ratio oder Risiko-Verhältnis ist ein Begriff der deskriptiven Statistik.Es gibt die Relation eines Risikos in zwei verschiedenen Gruppen an, die sich durch das Vorhandenseins eines oder mehrerer Merkmale unterscheiden
• Hazard ratios differ from relative risks (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) in that RRs and ORs are cumulative over an entire study, using a defined endpoint, while HRs represent instantaneous risk over the study time period, or some subset thereof
• Hazard ratio (E vs C) for the time period. Please note that results shown are rounded to 2 decimal places, but the calculations used the raw numbers from the previous column ( c ) and therefore give different results than if the rounded numbers were used (eg, 0.06/0.08 = 0.75)
• Like Joost and Edwin said, hazard ratio and relative risk are not exactly the same even though they are commonly used interchangeably. Hazard ratio is an instantaneous risk meaning the risk of failure at time t given that the subject has survived up to the beginning of the the time interval (or up to t-1) while relative risk is usually a cumulative risk during the entire follow-up time
• Analysis of prospective follow-up data usually includes a Cox regression model. When a hazard rate ratio, obtained as the exponential of an estimated regression coefficient from the Cox model, is greater than 1.0, it consistently exceeds relative risk, and is exceeded by the odds ratio. The divergen

relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided Odds Ratio Vs Relative Risk. When two groups are under study or observation, you can use two measures to describe the comparative likelihood of an event happening. These two measures are the odds ratio and relative risk. Both are two different statistical concepts, although so much related to each other Relative risk vs risk difference Risk in Group A Risk in Group B Relative risk Absolute risk difference 40% 80% 0.5 40 percentage points 10% 20% 0.5 10 1% 2% 0.5 1 Relative risk tends to be similar across different populations, and so does not depend on the background risk Risk difference does depend on the background risk, and s Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube

### The Difference Between Relative Risk and Odds Ratios - The

1. Risk ratios lack this symmetry, so it may be necessary to present 1 risk ratio for outcome Y and another for outcome not Y. Risk ratios, but not odds ratios, have a mathematical property called collapsibility; this means that the size of the risk ratio will not change if adjustment is made for a variable that is not a confounder
2. Relative risk is used to compare the risk in two different groups of people. For example, the groups could be smokers and non-smokers. All sorts of groups are compared to others in medical research to see if belonging to a group increases or decreases your risk of developing certain diseases
3. Hence the hazard ratio represents the risk of death in the isoniazid prophylaxis group compared with the placebo group at any time during the study period. The hazard ratio of death for the intervention group compared with the control group was 0.46 (0.22 to 0.95), which is smaller than unity (1.0)
4. Hazard Ratio 95% Hazard Ratio Confidence Limits danhlagrp2 1 0.37647 0.09150 16.9285 <.0001 1.457 1.218 1.743 The hazard ratio for mortality for patients receiving well-matched unrelated donor transplant vs. those receiving matched sibling donor transplant is 1.457, with a 95% confidence interval of [1.218-1.743] Modelling continuous covariate

### Statistik när du tolkar studier - Träningslär

Hazard ratios are commonly used when presenting results in clinical trials involving survival data, and allow hypothesis testing. They should not be considered the same as relative risk ratios. When hazard ratios are used in survival analysis, this may have nothing to do with dying or prolonging life, but reflects th This video wil help students and clinicians understand how to interpret hazard ratios In our example above, p wine and p no_wine were 0.009 and 0.012 respectively, so the odds ratio was a good approximation of the relative risk: OR = 0.752 and RR = 0.75. If the risks were 0.8 and 0.9, the odds ratio and relative risk will be 2 very different numbers: OR = 0.44 and RR = 0.89. Relative risk vs Odds ratio Similaritie ### Hazard Ratio Calculator - Calculate Hazard Ratio, HR

The relative risk is the ratio of the risk in the exposed group to the risk in the unexposed group, as is summarized in Box 1. Depending on the study design and statistical method applied, the relative risk can be presented using different measures of effect, such as the incidence rate ratio and hazard ratio Absolute risk numbers are needed to understand the implications of relative risks and how specific factors or behaviours affect your likelihood of developing a disease or health condition. This infographic will help you to understand the difference between absolute risks and relative risks, using the example of processed meat consumption and risk of bowel cancer MedCalc's free online Relative risk statistical calculator calculates Relative risk and Number needed to treat (NNT) with 95% Confidence Intervals from a 2x2 table Increasing the odds ratio while holding a base odds constant corresponds to increasing the other odds, but may or may not be similar to the relative change in probability. You may also want to ponder the difference between hazard and probability (see my earlier discussion where I make mention of hand-waving; now we don't gloss over the difference)

### Absolute vs. Relative Risk: What Does Percentage Risk ..

1. The relative risk and the odds ratio are measures of association between exposure status and disease outcome in a population. Relative risk In epidemiology, relative risk (RR) can give us insights in how much more likely an exposed group is to develop a certain disease in comparison to a non-exposed group. Once we know the exposure and disease status of a research population, we can fill in.
2. A positive sign means that the hazard (risk of death) is higher, and thus the prognosis worse, for subjects with higher values of that variable. The variable sex is encoded as a numeric vector. 1: male, 2: female. The R summary for the Cox model gives the hazard ratio (HR) for the second group relative to the first group, that is, female versus.
3. While the smoking risk is very real, and a 100-fold increase is scarier than a 50-fold increase, it's likely a lifetime smoker would rather hear that he now has a 1-in-200 (i.e., 0.5% absolute risk increase and 10,000% relative risk increase) chance of lung cancer than learning he has a 1-in-4 chance (i.e., 25% absolute risk increase and 5,000% relative risk increase)
4. Risk ratio would be 0.88/0.64 = 1.38 Rate ratio = 10/5 = 2.0. Rate Ratio vs Risk Ratio - What do you report? Is the risk ratio or 1.38 telling you something different than the rate ratio of 2.0? It would be perfectly legitimate to report either risk ratio or rate ratio, or even both, but your choice would depend on your research question and.
5. The hazards ratio may also be thought of as the relative death rate, see Armitage and Berry (1994). The interpretation of the hazards ratio depends upon the measurement scale of the predictor variable in question, see Sahai and Kurshid (1996) for further information on relative risk of hazards. Time-dependent and fixed covariate
6. Also I would point out that the graph you provided is a hazard ratio, not relative risk. As you know a Cox Proportional Regression model (hazard ratio) is the most educated wild ass guess we have!! LOL! And thanks for the link, I will use that in the future for sure in explaining such things to friends
7. hazard ratio (haz′ărd), HR 1. In biostatistics, the calculated likelihood that a particular intervention will make a study outcome more or less likely to occur. A hazard ratio of 1.0 indicates that the variable has no impact on the outcome. A hazard ratio of less than 1.0 indicates that the variable decreases the likelihood of the outcome. A ratio.

### Principles of Epidemiology Lesson 3 - Section

The hazard ratio is the ratio of these two expected hazards: h 0 (t)exp (b 1a)/ h 0 (t)exp (b 1b) = exp(b 1(a-b)) which does not depend on time, t. Thus the hazard is proportional over time. Sometimes the model is expressed differently, relating the relative hazard, which is the ratio of the hazard at time t to the baseline hazard, to the risk. Expressed as an absolute difference, the new drug reduces the 5-year risk for heart attack by 1 percentage point. The relative difference is the ratio of the two risks. Given the data above, the relative difference is: 1% ÷ 2% = 50%. Expressed as a relative difference, the new drug reduces the risk for heart attack by half

If there was an extremely low proportion of subjects with an event in all experiments (let's say <10%) and the hazard and odds ratios are vey close to 1, then hazard, odds and relative risk ratios will be relatively close to each other. If that is not the case the fundamental differences between these measures will be more and more noticable Key facts about the hazard ratio • Hazard is defined as the slope of the survival curve — a measure of how rapidly subjects are dying. • The hazard ratio compares two treatments. If the hazard ratio is 2.0, then the rate of deaths in one treatment group is twice the rate in the other group

association: absolute (Absolute risk reduction, Attributable risk, Attributable risk percent) relative ( ความเสี่ยงสัมพัทธ์ ( Odds ratio , Hazard ratio ) other : Virulenc I will quote the results showing relative risk ratios (RR). Hazard ratio (HR) is nearly the same measure often quoted. A RR or HR value of 1.5 = 50% increased risk. Either of these are the most commonly cited statistics in all the medical studies. Here is an abstract of the results of the study Relative Risikoreduktion. Die Relative Risikoreduktion (RRR, englisch relative risk reduction) gibt an, um welchen Anteil im Verhältnis (relativ) das bestehende Risiko jeweils durch eine Intervention vermindert wird.. Eine Änderung der Mortalität von 2 % auf 1,6 % beispielsweise entspricht der Verminderung des Relativen Risikos um ein Fünftel oder 20 %; RRR = 20 % Hazard ratio: A hazard ratio (HR) is an annual risk of death (or some other outcome, e.g., cancer recurrence, heart attack) over a specific period, Nuzzo explains. The period of time being studied is important, because everyone has a 100% chance of dying at some point in their lives Results of the PROfound trial showed Lynparza significantly reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 66% based on a hazard ratio of 0.34 (p less than 0.0001) vs. abiraterone or enzalutamide in patients with BRCA1/2 or ATM-mutated mCRPC, the primary endpoint of the trial

Relative risk. Probability is the likelihood of an event in relation to all possible events. If a horse wins 2 out of every 5 races, its probability of winning is 2/5 (40%). Relative risk is a ratio of probabilities. It compares the incidence or risk of an event among those with a specific exposure with those who were not exposed (eg,. The simple relative risk is 0.55 and the simple odds ratio is .25.Clearly the probability of fathering a child is strongly dependent on a variety of demographic variables, especially age (the issue of marital status was dealt with by a separate analysis). The control group was 8.4 years older on average (43.5 years versus 35.1), showing the need to adjust for this variable In other words, the hazard ratio is a relative risk, when there is an interest in the timing of that risk. This relative risk calculator allows you to perform a post-hoc statistical evaluation of a set of risk data when the outcome of interest is the change in relative risk (the risk ratio) or the absolute risk difference (ARR) between an exposed/treatment group and a control group The Relative Merits of Risk Ratios and Odds Ratios. The odds ratio will estimate the average change in odds (the average odds ratio) among exposed individuals only when all individual odds ratios are equal and all individual outcome risks without exposure are equal 1; this implausible scenario is shown in Table 5. relative risk, and which is also fairly close to the estimated hazard ratio of 0.39 (row j). In contrast to the overall relative risk, both the time-dependent relative risk and hazard ratio take into account the timing of events which may not be evenly distributed throughout the study period

Odds ratio vs Relative Risk/Hazard Ratio I have a background in physics with a few courses in statistics, but I still have a hard time intuitively understanding OR. I get RR as it just is a ratio of probabilities, and I look at HR as RR with a time component Hazard vs. Risk via @EFSA_EU. Trusted science for safe food. EFSA is an agency of the European Unio Relative risk is the ratio between one risk and another. Basically this means that you take the likelihood of one event happening and divide it by another Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology R.D. Stenner M.K. White D.L. Strenge R.L. Aaberg W.B. Andrews September 2000 The RH equation calculates a relative ratio representative of the hazard reduction associated with a specified risk management action compared to a baseline The Table below compares the risk following infection with the background hazard later in the relevant decade (the 7th year). Their ratio, the relative risk, ranges around 0.5 to 2

The Hazard ratio (HR) is one of the measures that in clinical research are most often difficult to interpret for students and researchers. In this post we will try to explain this measure in terms of its practical use. You should know what the Hazard Ratio is, but we will repeat it again. Let's take [ Hazard ratio is actually a type of Relative risk (a.k.a Risk ratio) The difference? HR is instantaneous while RR is culmulative. RR can only be calculated at the end of the study while HR can be calculated at different points in time. Hazard ratios are calculated using the survival analysis technique

### Video: Odds ratios and risk ratios: what's the difference and why

Relative survival and cause-speci c survival attempt to estimate Hazard Ratio Age group Cause-speci c HR P-value 95% CI 18-59 1.00 - - hazards is the risk set. For the cause-speci c hazard the risk set decreases each time there is a death from another cause - censoring Odds ratio (OR) is a statistic commonly encountered in professional or scientific medical literature. Most readers perceive it as relative risk (RR), although most of them do not know why that would be true. But since such perception is mostly correct, there is nothing (or almost nothing) wrong with that A relative risk of 3.0 means the rate is three times as high (200 percent more) and so forth. (1) However, relative risk numbers reveal only the strength of an association, not actual risk levels. This is different from what researchers refer to as absolute risk, which is based on actual incidence of something within a single group The home-made video abstract on the BMJ website shows you the difference between odds and risk, and how one odds ratio can mean several different relative risks (RRs), depending on the risk in one of the groups. Unfortunately, in some situations, you just have to get an OR, notably logistic regression and retrospective case-control studies

Choice of margin: absolute vs. relative risk difference. A non-inferiority margin can be chosen as an ARD or risk ratio (RR). It is recommended to use a relative difference to account for changes in event rates; Relative risk = 0.90 (0.74-1.10) Hazard ratio = 0.79 (0.66-0.96). Tekst onder de verantwoordelijkheid van de Nederlandstalige redactie . In dit nummer van Minerva bespreken we een open-label RCT die het effect onderzocht van colchicine 0,5 mg per dag bij patiënten met stabiele coronaire hartziekte.Na een gemiddelde follow-up van 36 maanden werd bij 15 van de 282 (of 5,3%) patiënten in de colchicinegroep en bij 40 van de 250 (of 16%) patiënten in de. 2) Relative Risk and Odds Ratio for the non-obese: Relative Risk and Odds Ratio for the obese: 3) Overall, you can see that decreasing the baseline incidence will decrease the odds ratio (3.00 in those who are non-obese versus 1.29 in those who are obese). Obviously, these results run counte

Cox regression, however, allows for only one hazard ratio, which is exp( 1). The hazard ratio of death for surgery vs. no surgery is assumed to be the same at any time since baseline. The model may therefore be called a constant hazard ratio model, but someone thought that proportional is a better word to describe a fixed ratio of two. For 2 months the hazard ratio increases by a factor 1.04 2. The coefficient for multiple gallstones (dichotomous variable Mult ) is 0.9335. Exp(b) = Exp(0.9635) is 2.6208, meaning that a case with previous gallstones is 2.6208 (with 95% Confidence Interval 1.3173 to 5.2141) more likely to have a recurrence than a case with a single stone Measures of effect: Relative risks, odds ratios, risk difference, and 'number needed to treat' G Tripepi1, KJ Jager2, FW Dekker2,3, C Wanner4 and C Zoccali1 1CNR-IBIM, Clinical Epidemiology and Physiopathology of Renal Diseases and Hypertension of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy; 2ERA-EDTA Registry, Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, University of.       How to Calculate Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Risk Quotient (RQ) Little Pro on 2018-06-13 Views: Update:2019-11-16. Both hazard quotient (HQ) and risk quotient (RQ) are very important concepts in chemical risk assessment. They are used by regulatory authorities such as US EPA to describe the risk category of a chemical substance The odds ratio ((a/c)/(b/d)) looks at the likelihood of an outcome in relation to a characteristic factor. In epidemiological terms, the odds ratio is used as a point estimate of the relative risk in retrospective studies. Odds ratio is the key statistic for most case-control studies To understand odds ratios in terms of relative risk, you can use a non-quantitative approach. The rules are: The RR will always be closer to 1.0 than the OR. If the baseline risk (the risk of adverse events in the control group) is low (say, less than 30%), the difference between RR and OR is unlikely to be important Risk vs Hazard posted by John Spacey, April 18, 2018. A risk is a potential for a negative outcome. A hazard is an agent that causes a risk. The Difference A risk is a probability of a negative outcome such as a disease. 4 Examples of Relative Risk.

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